Processes

On this page you can find important processes from project and portfolio management described from the point of view of leading standards.
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Processes
PRINCE2 Process
PMI Process

 

PRINCE2 Processes

Process description
PRINCE2 is an acronym for „PRojects IN Controlled Environments“ and is further known as one of the available and most established standards in the field of project management. Formally known as best practise approach for the UK government, today the methodology is often internationally applied in the private and governmental sector. Due to its well-structured, process-based method this effective way of project management is in use especially for handling IT projects. The following sections will provide you with a brief overview about its 7 processes that characterise this process-based project management methodology.
7 Processes

Starting up a project

  • Formulation of the project proposal
  • Appointing the executive, program manager and project management team
  • Capture previous lessons and bear them permanently in mind
  • Create business case draft
  • Estimate effort roughly
  • Define project approach and build up the Project Brief
  • Plan the initiation stage

Directing a project

  • Project board is permanently responsible for the direction of the project during the whole project duration
  • Authorise initiation, project and project plan (Stage or Exception Plan)
  • Give ad hoc direction
  • Permanent review of project benefits

Initiating a project

  • Create project plan
  • Prepare the quality management strategy
  • Prepare the risk management strategy
  • Create benefits review plan
  • Define the business case
  • Set-up project controls
  • Prepare the configuration management strategy
  • Build up the Project Initiation documents

Controlling a stage

  • Review project progress
  • Authorise a work package
  • Receive complete work packages
  • Review status of work packages
  • Update project plan
  • Capture and examine risks and issues
  • Escalation of risks and issues if needed
  • Take corrective action
  • Report highlights to all involved stakeholders
  • Planning of next project phase

Managing product delivery

  • Allocate work packages to team
  • Execution and delivery of work packages
  • Assessing work progress and forecasts regularly
  • Check and ensure quality of delivered work packages
  • Report to project manager

Managing stage boundaries

  • Update business case and project plan
  • Update risks
  • Approval of End Stage Report of previous stage
  • Detailed planning of next stage
  • Produce an Exception Plan
  • Get approval for starting with next stage

Closing a project

  • Prepare planned closure or prepare premature closure
  • Hand over products
  • Review and evaluate project
  • Recommend project closure to project board
  • Documentation Lessons Learned

PRINCE2 management products which are used within the 7 processes:

  1. Benefits Review Plan
  2. Business Case
  3. Checkpoint Report
  4. Communication Management Strategy
  5. Configuration Item Record
  6. Configuration Management Strategy
  7. Daily Log
  8. End Project Report
  9. End Stage Report
  10. Exception Report
  11. Highlight Report
  12. Issue Register
  13. Issue Report
  14. Lessons Log
  15. Lessons Report
  16. Plan - Project, Stage and Team
  17. Product Description
  18. Product Status Account
  19. Project Brief
  20. Project Initiation Document
  21. Project Product Description
  22. Quality Management Strategy
  23. Quality Register
  24. Risk Management Strategy
  25. Risk Register
  26. Work Package Report

PRINCE2 is extremely flexible. Therefore the 7 processes can also be modified according to the specific needs. Experienced project managers for instance may merge the two separate processes "Starting up" and "Initiation" into one process. In small projects it might be possible to reduce for example the project organization. The minimum contains three roles: customer or client, supplier and project manager. If it turns out that the customer is at the same time customer and supplier it is recommended to check whether the planned scope of work is in fact a project or not. In addition the creation of all 26 management products is therefore not always needed.

PRINCE2 provides projects with…
    … controlled start, controlled stage boundaries and controlled end
    … focus on business justification and risk
    … a defined organizational structure
    … moments for flexible decisions
    … regular, scheduled checks of progress
    … automatic corrections by management when not in line with plan
    … commitment of management and stakeholders at the right time and for the right topics
    … good communication channels between the project and the rest of the organization

For more information, visit our use case section:
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PMI Processes

Process description
A guide to the Project Body of Knowledge (PMBoK guide) presents a set of standard terminology and guidelines for the entire project management process. This guide is process-based and recognizes 47 processes that fall into five basic process groups and ten knowledge areas which are typical for most projects.

The covered five process groups are:
  • Initiating: defines and authorizes a project
  • Planning: shapes the outcomes / goals for the project by knowledge area
  • Execution: caries out the project plan
  • Controlling and Monitoring: assesses actual project outcomes to planned targets and makes corrective actions if needed
  • Closing: obtains a formal acceptance of the product / service by stakeholders



Knowledge areas are as follows:

1. Project Integration Management

The knowledge area focuses on the creation of the "Project Charter", the project scope statement and a viable, usable plan. Once the project is started, this knowledge area is used for monitoring and controlling the work. It also covers the area of change management to ensure the awareness of how a change affects all other areas of knowledge.

The project integration management include:

  • Develop the project order
  • Develop the preliminary description of the project's content and scope
  • Develop the project management plan
  • Directioning and managing project execution
  • Monitor and control project work
  • Perform integrated change control
  • Closing the project.

2. Project Scope Management

In this knowledge area the project scope is defined, developed and its implementation is ensured. In addition also one of the most important activities of the whole project management topics is done by the creation of the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS).

Briefly the Project Scope Management stands for all related processes which are needed to handle the essential work to build up the project deliverables in order to fulfil and close the project successfully.

The Project Scope management includes:

  • Plan scope management
  • Collect requirements
  • Define scope
  • Create WBS
  • Validate and control scope.

3. Project Time Management

The Project Time Management describes the processes concerning the timely completion of the project. It's about defining activities, estimating the durations of activities, scheduling activities and ensuring adherence to the schedule. Time management is a crucial part of any successful project. Without careful planning, projects are set up to fail.

The related processes of this knowledge area are:

  • Plan schedule
  • Define activities
  • Sequence activities
  • Estimate activity resources
  • Estimate activity durations
  • Develop and control schedule.

4. Project Cost Management

For Project Cost Management it's essential to know the financial and human resources required for the project. It requires that project managers create a careful budget and adhere to it so that the project result is as much profit as possible. Cost management ties into time management, because in order to ensure that the project is completed on budget, it also has to be completed on time.

This area of knowledge contains four processes:

  • Plan cost management
  • Estimate costs
  • Determine budget
  • Control costs.

5. Project Quality Management

Quality is the degree to which the project fulfils requirements in terms of ensuring a quality end-product and second ensuring that all of the processes involved during the project lifecycle are carried out efficiently. By managing quality, project managers are able to ensure a successful project and increased customer satisfaction.

The related processes of the Project Quality Management are:

  • Plan quality management
  • Perform quality assurance
  • Control quality.

6. Project Human Resource Management

Project Human Resource Management includes the processes that organize, manage and lead the project team. The project team is comprised to the people with assigned roles and responsibilities for completing the project. Besides ensuring that the proper people are working on a project, a professional human resources management also means that everyone is working efficiently and the right people have been scheduled for the tasks they are best adapted for. Therefore this area of knowledge is a key for successful projects.

  • Plan HR management
  • Acquire project team
  • Develop project team
  • Manage project team.

7. Project Communication Management

One of the main targets of this area of knowledge is to provide methods in order to gather store and distribute information. Furthermore monitoring and controlling throughout the complete project lifecycle to ensure that the information needs of the project stakeholders are met is also one of the most important targets.

  • Plan communication management
  • Manage communications
  • Control communication
  • Stakeholder management.

8. Project Risk Management

This area of knowledge contains six processes of conducting risk management. The targets of these processes are to increase the impact and / or probability of opportunities respectively to decrease impact and / or probability to threats in the project.

  • Plan risk management
  • Identify risks
  • Qualitative risk analysis
  • Quantitative risk analyses
  • Plan risk responses
  • Monitor and control risks.

9. Project Procurement Management

Procurement Management is the knowledge area involved in purchasing or acquiring products, services or results from outside the project team, including developing and administering the contract or purchase order needed to obtain them.

The four processes are:

  • Plan procurement management
  • Conduct procurements
  • Control procurements
  • Close procurement.

10. Project Stakeholder Management

The Project Stakeholder Management processes are essential in order to identify the people, groups or organizations that could impact or be impacted by the project, analyse stakeholder expectations and their impact on the project and finally develop appropriate management strategies for effectively engaging stakeholders in project decision and exectuion.

Mentioned processes are:

  • Identify stakeholders
  • Plan stakeholder management
  • Manage stakeholder engagement
  • Control stakeholder engagement.